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2015-1-30 16:28










Almost all animals with a spine yawn. Penguins do it as a mating ritual; snakes do it to realign their jaws after a meal and guinea pigs do it to display anger. So why exactly do humans yawn? And is yawning actually contagious? If you haven't already checked out our yawn-o-meter video, click here or use the link in the description to see how long you can last before yawning.
幾乎所有的有脊椎動物都會打哈欠。企鵝以此為求偶儀式,餐后蛇借此來整理下頜, 荷蘭豬借此表達憤怒。那么人為什么要打哈欠呢?哈欠有傳染性嗎?如果你還沒看過“哈欠耐力測試“這個視頻,看看視頻描述里的鏈接 看看你能堅持多久。

If you are anything like us, you may have even yawned at the title of this video. The truth is: the first time you yawned was likely as a fetus. Babies begin to yawn during the second trimester and though the reason why still unknown, it may have to do with proper brain development. In adults, yawns were commonly thought to draw more oxygen into the lungs making you feel less tired, but new researches states that this may not be the case.

Scientists now believe that yawning has developed a way of physiologically cooling your brain. Much like a computer, you brain work best at a certain temperature, and tries to avoid overheating. And it turns out, yawning increases your heart rate, blood flow and the use of muscles in your face, which are all essential to cool your brain.

On top of that, deeply inhaling cold air can alter the temperature of the blood in our head. But, why is your brain hot in the first place? Well, both exhaustion and sleep deprivation are known to increase overall brain temperature which explains why yawning occurs more in these states.

Researchers have even found participants who place warm packs on their heads yawn 41% of the time while watching others yawn, as opposed to 9% with a cold pack on their head. So if your head is already cold, you will yawn less. But what about contagious or social yawning? Humans, primates and even dogs finding yawning contagious and it's most likely linked to empathy. Contagious yawning begins in children around the age of 4-5,and this is when empathetic behavior, along with the ability to identifying emotions, begin to develop.
研究者發現,頭上放了熱水袋的參與者在看其他人打哈欠時,有41%的時候也會打哈欠,而頭上放了冷水袋的只有9%。因此,大腦越“冷靜“ 哈欠就越少。不過,受他人傳染的哈欠是怎么回事?人類、靈長類甚至犬類都會被傳染打哈欠,這很可能與“共情“有關。兒童在4-5歲的時候開始被哈欠傳染,同一時期,同情性行為,以及辨識情緒的能力開始逐漸發育。

In fact, children with empathy related disorders, such as autism, yawn less and response to videos of people yawning comparing to other children .Research also suggest that you are more likely to copy the yawn of someone socially or genetically close to you. Even dogs are more likely to copy the yawns of their owner as opposed to the yawn of a stranger.

Finally, mirror neurons also play a role. In our brain, mirror neuron fire when we perform a specific action view someone else doing the action, or even just hear someone talk about the action. They are important brain cells that are used for learning, self-awareness and relating to others. When we view someone else yawn, the mirror neurons in our brain become activated in a similar way and as a result we copy the yawn.
最后,鏡像神經元對此也有功勞。在我們大腦內,鏡像神經元會在我們看到他人做出特定動作時產生沖動,甚至僅在聽別人說到動作時也會。它們是重要的腦神經細胞,作用于學習自我意識,以及于他人相處。當我們看到其他人打哈欠時,大腦內的鏡像神經元進入類似的活躍狀態,使得我們被傳染 打了哈欠。

So although yawning may occur in people who are literally hot-headed, contagious yawning allows us to be cool with the people around us.