大乐透复式10十3多少钱:[煎蛋小學堂]植物有思想嗎?

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2015-2-6 11:50

[煎蛋小學堂]植物有思想嗎?

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[煎蛋小學堂]植物有思想嗎?

節目簡介:

你是不是對日常生活中一些稀松平常的現象產生過好奇心?

到底為什么會是醬紫的呢?

科普類視頻節目《煎蛋小學堂》幾分鐘為讓你茅塞頓開,雙語文本+視頻+MP3更是不容錯過的英語口語、口譯好素材呢~~

還在等什么,一起來一場對未知世界的奇妙探索之旅吧~~

參考雙語文本:

With over 300,000 plants species on Earth, there's no doubt that they have highly developed senses to stay alive and thrive. But while some of their features may be compared to taste, sight, touch and smell in humans, have you ever wondered-can plants think?
世界上共有三十多萬種植物,毫無疑問,為了繁榮昌盛它們的感官都已高度進化。不過,盡管一些特征可以與人類的味覺、視覺、觸覺和嗅覺做比,你是否曾想過植物會思考嗎?

On land, the cumulative mass of plants is 1000 times higher than that of animals. But these plants are immobile and can't move around in their environment which is seemingly a pretty big evolutionary disadvantage. This has forced plants to adapt in amazing ways that often go unnoticed by the naked eye.
陸地上植物總重量比動物高1000倍。但這些植物都是固定不動的,似乎在進化中這也很不利。這點迫使植物采取些容易被眼睛忽略的奇特方式。



Smell something funny? Plants do too and they react to these chemicals in the air. For example, when fruits start to ripen, they release a chemical called ethylene. And when neighboring fruits sense this pheromone, they ripen faster, so that all fruits mature at the same time. Plants also give off scents which attract insects to spread their pollen.
味道怪味了?植物也能聞并會對空氣中的化學物質做出反應。比如 ,水果在成熟時會釋放出一種叫乙烯的物質。當周圍植物感測到這種信息素時,它們會更快成熟,而所有的水果就能同時成熟了。植物也會釋放出吸引昆蟲傳粉的氣味。

In particular, the amazing carrion flowers grow tiny hairs, feel warm and smell like rotting flesh in an attempt to mimic a dead corpse. This is to attract flies and beetles as pollinators. On the other hand, when a plant is attacked by an insect, animal or pathogen, it knows. When acacia trees are grazed by animals, they quickly react by producing chemicals called tannins, which make their leaves unappetizing and tough to digest.
特別地大王花會長出腐肉味的絨毛借此模仿死尸。這是為了吸引傳粉者 蒼蠅和甲蟲。另一方面,當植物受到昆蟲、植物或病菌的侵害時它也知道。當金合歡樹被動物盯上時,它也會立即產生單寧酸,這讓它們的葉子更難吃、難以消化。

Some even produce enough toxins to kill the animal. Perhaps more impressive are some corn and cotton plants which when eaten by caterpillars release chemicals in the air that attract parasitic wasps who fly in and ultimately kill the insects.
有些甚至會產生足以殺死動物的毒素。更驚人的是一些玉米類和棉類植物,在被毛蟲啃咬時,它們會釋放化學物質吸引寄生蜂,后者受吸引而來殺死昆蟲。

On some level, they communicate with the wasps. Crazy as it seems, even sound recordings of caterpillars chewing leaves, trigger this response. Without any from of touch, the plants react, as if they can hear. On a large scale, plants also work together. A web of underground fungi can connect tree roots in forests, allowing them to exchange nutrients and information.
一定程度上說,它們能與黃蜂交流。讓人詫異的是毛蟲啃咬葉子的錄音也會引起這種反應。沒有任何形式的觸碰,植物也像有聽覺一樣做出反應。多數情況下,植物也會齊心協力。地下的真菌網會將森林里的樹根相連,讓它們交換養分和信息。

Using radioactive isotopes, scientists discovered that trees share water and nutrients with others in need. Large trees nourish smaller shaded ones until they are tall enough to reach sunlight. And trees that stay green all year round share nutrients with trees that lose their leaves in winter, helping them through the season. Which is then repaid in the summer months, like a transactional exchange. Some scientists refer to this as the "wood-wide web".
科學家通過同位素觀測發現,樹木會與有需求者分享水和養料。大樹會與受遮蔽的小樹分享養分,直到它們能受到日照。四季常青的樹木會與冬季落葉的樹木分享養分,幫助它們過冬。在夏天它們得到償還的養分 像是生物交換。一些科學家稱此為“樹聯網“。

Perhaps the most shocking fact is that some plants seem to have memory. Mimosa pudica plants are those leafy plants that close up when touched. This reflex is meant to scare away insects that land on them. I n an experiment on these reflexes, scientists notice that when dropped from 15cm.they would close when they hit the ground. Not so surprising. But after repeating the drop 4 or 5 times, some of the plants stopped closing as though they had realized the stimulus wasn't harmful. If they were shaken instead, they would close, but any time they were dropped from this same height, they stayed open. This effect lasted for weeks-the plants had memories.
更驚人的是一些植物似乎有記憶能力。含羞草是一種受觸碰時葉子會合攏的植物。這種反射是為了嚇唬落在它們身上的植物。在一項關于這種反射的實驗中,研究者發現從15厘米高出落下,它們的葉子會在落地時合攏。沒什么奇怪的。但重復四五次后,一些植物不再合攏(葉子)了,似乎它們也發現這種刺激不會傷害它們。受到搖晃時,葉子就會合攏,但無論何時,從同樣的高度掉下,葉子仍然張開。這種效果會持續數星期,植物也有記憶力。

Of course, plants don't have brains or other cells and organs that we deem necessary for intelligence. Brains and neurons are irreplaceable, but plants are immobile and often attacked, so they must be able to survive after part of them is eaten or destroyed. A brain just wouldn't work. But if you measure intelligence or thought as the ability to solve problems, interact with an environment and even work in groups, then plants are incredibly smart.
當然,植物沒有大腦或者其他“智力“不可或缺的器官或細胞。大腦和神經無可替代,但植物無法移動,也常受攻擊,在部分被吃掉或毀壞后 它們還得能活下去。大腦沒什么用。但如果你將智力或思維視作解決問題的能力,與周圍環境的交互,甚至團隊合作力,那么植物相當聰明。

It's something to think about next time you're munching down on a piece of broccoli!
下次嚼西蘭花時 好好想想這點吧!